Category: Resources for Trainees

Aluminum Wiring: What’s the Problem?

By Scott Bowers,

Aluminum electrical wiring showing burning

Aluminum Wiring was used in the construction of roughly 1.5 million U.S. homes built between 1965 and 1973. According to a report published by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), homes wired with aluminum wire manufactured before 1972 (“old technology” aluminum wire) are 55 times more likely to have one or more connections reach Fire Hazard Conditions than is a home wired with copper. This problem only gets worse with time. The aluminum-wired connections that fail tend to progressively deteriorate at a slow rate, and after many years can reach very high temperature while still remaining electrically functional in the circuits. A large number of connection burnouts have occurred in aluminum-wired homes. Many fires have occurred some involving injury and death.

The Aluminum Industry Wins in Court

Initial investigations into hazards associated with aluminum wiring were spearheaded by the CPSC. The federal agency works very closely with manufacturers and testing organizations like the UL. Its findings are taken seriously due in part to its ability to impose industry standards.

In the mid-1970s, the CPSC began distributing information concerning the potential hazards of aluminum wiring. It also was working to seek relief for people with homes wired with aluminum. This resulted in a 1976 lawsuit filed by Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation against the CPSC, ending in 1979 with a federal appeals court ruling that deemed electrical distribution items not to be consumer products.

Since the CPSC has jurisdiction over consumer products, the area of electrical wiring falls outside of the CPSC.

Useful Resources (Supplied by Aluminum Wire Repair, Inc.)

Federal Pacific Service Panels

Insurance Considerations

Favorite Electrical Links

(Source: Aluminum Wire Repair, Inc.. No copyright infringement intended.)

What are Arc-Faults and Why are They Dangerous?

By Scott Bowers,

Leviton Electrical Fire Infographic

An arc-fault is an unintentional arcing condition in a circuit. Arcing creates high intensity heating at the point of the arc, resulting in burning particles that can exceed 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit and may over time ignite surrounding material such as wood framing or insulation. 

There are two types of potentially dangerous arcs – parallel arcs and series arcs. 

Source: Leviton

What Causes Arc-Faults?

Often unseen, arc faults can occur anywhere in the home’s electrical system including:

Within Walls

  • Within walls from nails, screws or staples inadvertently driven into wires.

Within Cords

  • Within electrical cords accidently damaged by furniture resting or pressing upon them.

Within Loose Connections

  • At loose electrical connections or cords damaged by doors closing on them.

Within Damaged Cords

  • Through old or cracked wires or cords as well as wires or cords damaged by heat, sunlight or humidity. 

Prevention and Consequences of Electrical Fires

Source: Leviton

AFCI, GFCI, and AFGF Residential Breakers

By Scott Bowers,


What’s the Difference Between BR and CH Breakers?


  • BR breakers are 1″ in Width.
  • BR breakers are black, with black handles (In most cases. Some older styles have multicolored handles.)
  • BR breakers carry a 10 Year Warranty.


  • CH breakers are 3/4″ in Width.
  • CH breakers are Black with Sandalwood (Tan) handles.
  • CH breakers carry a lifetime warranty.

What’s the Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Surge Protective Devices?

  1. Type 1 devices are installed before the main device in the loadcenter, whereas Type 2 are installed following the main devices in the loadcenters. As stated in the catalog: “Type 1 Surge Protective Device (SPD)s are intended for installation between the secondary of the service transformer and the line side of the service equipment overcurrent device, as well as the load side, including watt-hour meter socket enclosures, and are intended to be installed without an external overcurrent protective device. Type 1 devices are dual-rated for Type 2 applications as well, providing the highest ratings available for installation at the service entrance.
  2. Type 2 Surge Protective Device—Permanently connected Type 2 SPDs are intended for installation on the load side of the service equipment overcurrent device, including SPDs located at the branch panel.” the Eaton Surge website

Residential Breakers Color Matrix


Essential Electrician Tools for Trainee Technicians

By Scott Bowers,

Electricians rely on their tools for areas like safety, accuracy, craftsmanship, and comfort.

Generally, you will see your electrician with an electrical tool kit. Assembling and maintaining this tool kit with the proper tools and gear is a key responsibility for an electrician. Every job you go to can require different electrical components and making sure you have the right tools in your kit is essential.

If you’d like to put your own basic or advanced kit together, visit Klein Tool’s Journey Toolkit Sets for options.

Main Street Electric Company proudly uses Milwaukee Tools. Find out more about their range of power tools and other accessories at your local ACE Hardware store.

Here are 14 common tools you will find in an electrician’s belt:

1. Pliers

Pliers are important for electricians who regularly work with and cut wire. The most commonly used pliers used by an electrician can include needle-nose pliers, side-cutting pliers, and reaming pliers.

2. Screwdrivers

Electricians will always have a variety of screwdrivers for loosening and fastening various pieces of hardware. Many professionals will carry adaptable screwdrivers with interchangeable bits so they’re never stuck without the electrical hand tools they need.

3. Tape Measure

When electricians work with wiring, it’s important to know the lengths of pieces you are cutting and stripping. A simple retractable tape measure will get most jobs in the field done, but there are advanced tape measures on the market that will make the process easier.

4. Electric Drill

Electricians will use an electric drill to help them install new lighting fixtures or disassemble installed hardware to access wiring and other electrical components. This tool is used often since installing lighting fixtures or accessing electrical wiring is a common task asked of an electrician.

5. Level

When installing light fixtures, finding precise points for placement is key. A standard level helps electricians make sure that fixtures, screws, and other installations are where they need to be. Some levels are magnetized for convenience and more accurate readings.

6. Wire Strippers

Wire strippers are essential for professional electricians who frequently have to strip the plastic coating on wires to expose the copper and make customized connections with other wiring or components. There are many wire stripper types and most electricians have various versions ready to use at their next job.

7. Fish Tape

Fish tape is used to run wiring between different electrical components through conduit piping. Fish tape is kept in a retractable coil and can be fed through installed conduit piping. Once the end of the fish tape appears on the opposite side, wiring can be hooked to the tape and the tape can be retracted.

8. Voltage Tester

Electrical work cannot safely begin until power has been cut off in certain parts of the property. A handheld voltage tester allows electricians to test to see if outlets are active and when power has been properly restored for the homeowner.

9. Reaming Bit

To install new or replace old conduits, you connect different segments of piping together to create a wiring route between electrical components. A reaming bit attaches to an electric drill, which widens the opening on one end of the piping and allows it to connect to another segment of piping and complete a secure conduit.

10. Conduit Bender

When determining a wiring route, most electricians plan to run wiring along the corner of the wall in the area they are working. Conduit benders allow electricians to curve conduit piping so electricians can use these routes and make sure that the conduits remain out of the way.

11. Flashlights

As an electrician, sooner or later you’ll have no other option than to work in the dark. Many electricians will be prepared for such a circumstance by carrying flashlights or other work lights in their truck.

12. Insulated Gloves

Electrocution is death or severe injury by electrical shock. Due to this possibility on any given job site, electricians need to take precautions. Electricians should have insulated gloves on them for every job.

13. Safety Glasses

Electricians on their first job or ones that have been working their entire lives should have a pair of safety glasses on hand at every job site. Whether they are inspecting wiring or using power tools, protecting your eyes should be a priority.

14. Circuit Finders

It can be sometimes difficult to know which outlets are connected to which circuit in a house. Electricians now use circuit finders that incorporate two main components: a handheld digital transmitter and small receivers that plug into outlets around the home. It will indicate which circuit which outlet belongs to.

(Source: Florida Technical College)

What is a bonded electrician?

By Scott Bowers,

A bond is an insurance policy for which the contractor pays a premium. It guarantees that the contractor will meet his obligations in a satisfactory manner. Failure to do so should result in the payment of compensation by the bonding company. There are three types of bonds, payment bond, performance bond and bid bond.

Being bonded could be like getting an insurance policy that the job 1: will be completed and 2: will be done properly. Larger commercial and almost all government jobs will require that all contractors and sub-contractors be Licensed, insured, and bonded. If you can find a bonded electrician you have a good chance the job will be done properly.

a bonded electrician at work on a job site.

A bonded electrician considers safety

their number one priority on job sites.

One of the problems is depending on the cost of the job, the fees a bonding company charges could be high and this may be passed on to you the customer.

Actually the quality of any good electricians work should be guaranteed until he or she dies. If you do have a problem with faulty work with any bonded contractor, try to get the name of the agent who put out the bond for this particular job.

To get answers to more questions about your electrical system see: Master Electric FAQs